PDF Scenes From The Gallery: Projects Between Artists 1973-78 (Cv/Visual Arts Research)

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Resistance and Control
Contents:
  1. Food & Performance. A Study Room Guide on eating and dining as explored in performance
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  3. Art in Washington and Its Afro-American Presence: 1940-1970
  4. Summary Information

Bench The bench consists of two parallel rails to roll the blowpipe on , a tool table, and a seat where the artist sits to work with the glass. Bit s Small pieces of molten glass that are added to a piece, to add colour, extra elements, handles, or stems. Block A waterlogged wooden tool usually made from fruit wood cherry, pear, apple , carved into a cup form to shape a hot gather of glass while on the punty.

Blowing The technique of inflating a hot gather of glass on the end of a blowpipe with breaths of air. Blowpipe An iron or steel tube, usually about 1. Cane A thin rod of glass, or a bundle of rods fused together to create a colour pattern when cut, or twisted, revealing a design in cross section. Casting Hot casting includes pouring molten glass into a mold or form.

Kiln casting involves melting glass in a mold inside a kiln.

Food & Performance. A Study Room Guide on eating and dining as explored in performance

Cold working Polishing, grinding, cutting or engraving techniques that are done after glass objects have been formed, fully annealed and cooled. Cold working techniques include the use of rotary machines fed by water, and abrasives such as sand, or other hand held tools. Crystal Popular term for colourless lead glass that is often used to describe any fine glass tableware. Flame working The technique of using a gas or propane torch to form objects from rods and tubes of glass.

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Also called lamp working. Flint Glass Also known as lead glass. Foot The base of an object; such as the part on which it rests.


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Furnace An enclosed structure for the production and retention of heat, used for melting glass batch and maintaining glass in a molten state. Fusing The process of heating the pieces of glass in a kiln until they bond or fuse together. Gaffer The person in charge of a team of hot glass workers through the entire production of a piece.

Gather The technique of winding a ball of molten glass called a gather from the furnace onto the end of a blow pipe or punty. Glass Blowing The technique of forming an object by inflating molten glass gathered on a blowpipe. The glass is then manipulated and shaped by rolling it on a marver, swinging it, and shaping it with tools. Glory Hole A high temperature, gas fueled chamber used to reheat and maintain the temperature of glass pieces while being worked on.

Grinding The technique of removing the surface of an object with a rotating wheel fed with an abrasive, or by some other means. Kiln An insulated, temperature controlled chamber for heating and cooling glass. Kiln Forming The technique of fusing, shaping or otherwise altering glass utilizing the heat of a kiln. Mosaic Glass The technique of surface decoration or object making made up of smaller glass components, usually many small, adjoining pieces of glass that are then joined together through fusing or, in the case of tile mosaic, grouting. Murrine Common pluralization murrini.

A term for coloured patterns made in a glass cane that are revealed when cut in cross sections. Term is coined by Italian glassmakers for the ancient Mediterranean mosaic glass technique they rediscovered in the 19th century. Pate de Verre A French term meaning "glass paste," pate de verre is the technique of creating a solid form from a glass powder or frit.

The "glass paste" is brushed or tamped into a mold and fused together in a kiln to form a solid object. Glass can be polished with hand held tools as well. Punty The punty is a solid metal rod that is tipped with a small amount of hot glass and applied to the base of a vessel or object to hold it while the glass is formed. When the punty is removed it often leaves a scar on the base of the object called the punty mark, which is polished out during cold working.

Art in Washington and Its Afro-American Presence: 1940-1970

Sandblasting The process of removing glass or imparting a matte finish by bombardment with fine grains of sand that are propelled by compressed air. Slumping The technique of forming glass using a mold, heat and gravity in a kiln. Stained Glass The generic name for decorative windows made of pieces of coloured glass fitted into canes and set in iron frames.

In addition to glass coloured by staining, glaziers use glass coloured throughout by metallic oxide, glass coloured by flashing, and glass decorated with enamel. Studio Glass A term used to describe unique or limited edition glass objects that were designed and created in a studio instead of a factory. Studio glass movement in North America is generally referred to as - Naomi McPherson for supporting me through this process; for listening and truly hearing my reasons for wanting to do this research in a particular way; and for being a true advocate of interdisciplinary research.

Suzanne Gott, and Dr. Robin Dods for their ongoing support; and for their creative and positive feedback despite the many hours of relentless reading and editing. William Ganis Wells College, NY , the contribution of your time and valuable insights were much appreciated. I wish to thank each of you for your valuable input and inspirational discussions. Your office door was always open, and through our many discussions I gained a wealth of knowledge and inspiration. Words of thanks will never be enough. To my sons, Richard and Christopher, and all my extended family; thank you for your words of encouragement.

I wish to recognize all the women glass artists, crafts people, artists, artisans, and makers in Canada. While I was only able to include a small group of these amazing women, there were many more who wanted to share their stories. As you represent the majority in the Canadian glass world, I can only imagine that the spotlight will finally settle on your collective talents and illuminate you for the talented and gifted women that you are.

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This research shares the experiences of seventeen women glass blowers in western Canada, the insights of glass instructors, as well as the reflections of several studio, hot shop, and gallery representatives. In determining specific parameters for this research, I decided that a focus on the glass community that resides within the geographical boundaries of western Canada, specifically the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Manitoba would provide a unique and focused western perspective.

The experiences and stories shared by these participants cover the experimental early days of studio glass through to the glass art movement of the s, up to the present day. Their stories reveal that glass was a desired commodity in the late s and early s, and women glass blowers had thriving glass practices despite both transparent and opaque gender barriers.

Glass blowers in recent years struggle in a tough economy and, although aware of gender biases, they do not allow this to hamper their success. Glass blowing is hot and heavy work, with many physical considerations. It is also an expensive pursuit and this limits the numbers of people blowing glass and the amount of glass blown by this elite group. The glass blowers involved in this project are self-defined as artists, artisans, crafts persons, or makers; some chose not to define themselves in any one category at all.

Their self- definition is based on the type of glass they create, ranging from one-of-a-kind pieces to production work, and several variations in between.

Table of contents

Some of the women directly refer to liminality in terms of the work they create or the space they occupy; while others occupy the 2 same space, they have not related this to liminality. Natali Rodrigues, from the Alberta College of Art and Design, was my guide throughout this research and in one of our many discussions she drew a Venn diagram to clarify this liminal space Figure 1. This study does not engage in the debate of what constitutes art versus what constitutes craft as this has been adequately covered by art and craft historians, critical theorists and writers alike.

Art and craft each have their own very distinct histories and theories. My resistance to defining the women as artists or craftspeople, or their work as art or craft is out of respect for these women, and in keeping with the methodologies and theoretical framework of this research. Galleries empower themselves by the simple act of naming or categorizing art based on their own preconceptions.

In this research, the women glass blowers have actively taken this over by naming their own creative works and practices individually and approaching said galleries on their own terms. For purposes of clarity, galleries are defined two ways in this research; as private or commercial spaces which display work for purchase by the public; or civic galleries and museums that maintain a permanent collection for historical and educational purposes.

There is no civic glass gallery in Canada; however, there are a few private or commercial galleries which predominantly or singularly feature glass, and a few civic galleries that have small selections of historical glass pieces often held in the Decorative Arts collection. The Royal Ontario Museum has a collection of glass paperweights collected internationally with several historical examples of glass objects from the Ancient Islamic world, Europe, America and Canada.

Summary Information

A Brief History of Glass A world history of glass would of necessity be multidisciplinary and too lengthy for this particular project. The timeline below Figure 2 gives a visual of the history of glass from its early ancient roots in the Middle East B. Two key art and craft movements are addressed in this research, and are indicated in juxtaposition on this chart as well. Timeline of historical glass movements. Archeological studies have placed the earliest forms of glass in the Middle East Syria, Egypt, Iran and Iraq at between and B.

Macfarlane and Martin giving this material a long history. Through exploration and trade, the skills for working with glass spread through Eurasia Early forms of glass were opaque and often used as a replacement material for pottery in the making of vessels, as glazing for pottery, and replicating precious stones in jewelry Roman civilization was known for its highly tuned technical skills in glass making, and tended to favour the making of glass vessels for domestic uses, and glass beads for jewelry making A new method of glass blowing was invented in the area of Syria and Iraq Macfarlane and Martin and in the ninth century the Islamic glass makers produced exquisite work ranging from small domestic vessels, lamps, gaming pieces, and perfume flasks, to large mosaics In terms of flat glass for functional uses, such as window glass, there was very little production of this type in the area at the time The 5 composition of early glass was reliant upon geographical location and the subsequent availability and type of raw materials.

Although window glass was produced in small quantities, it was difficult and expensive to make, and therefore only used in significant architectural applications Henderson The Middle Eastern glass makers continued to provide luxury and decorative objects to the European world until the s when this glass industry died out. Up to this point in time, glass was still opaque, until the Venetians invented crystal C. With this new, thin and transparent material the demand for glass grew, and glass houses for the production of glass sprung up throughout Europe.

In there were eighty-eight glass factories or glass houses in Europe making vessels, looking-glass plates, crown and plate glass, window glass, flint lead glass, and ordinary glass Macfarlane and Martin Glass production in Europe continued to evolve as techniques were discovered and perfected, and new formulas were created. The Canada Glass Works in St. Jean, Quebec opened its doors in , making bottles and window glass, but closed in Glass factories in Canada opened and closed according to financial solvency, with some folding into larger glass factories.

Flood noted that glass historian Gerald Stevens was able to document 33 glass houses in Canada in the nineteenth century, of which only 17 survived into the highly mechanized twentieth century Flood The Dominion Glass Company incorporated in with several of the above mentioned companies amalgamated into their operations, and they are still in business across Canada today.


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